Table 6: Examples of intersectional gender questions linking a gender domain and an implementation research outcome. Adapted from (1, 19).
Implementation outcome variable: Feasibility (i.e. the extent to which an intervention can be carried out in a particular setting or organization)
Gender power relations domain Examples of intersectional gender questions
Access to resources To what extent do women and men (or other marginalized categories of people) have the same access to material resources and opportunities for education and training? To what extent do family support and roles help or limit opportunities for training by gender identity, marital status, age or other social variables? How might this affect stakeholder engagement within an intervention?
To what extent do women (or other marginalized categories) have sufficient literacy, autonomy and access to technology to effectively use an intervention?
To what extent is protective health equipment and gear made available and does it fit bodies that are not the male standard?
Division of labour and roles To what extent are women more or less likely to work in frontline health service delivery in poorly compensated (including volunteer) or less-supported positions than men? How does this affect who implements an intervention and how?
How do men’s and women’s roles and responsibilities affect the use of products used within the intervention (e.g. bed nets, vaccinations)?
What are the challenges different groups of women and men might face in adhering to long-term treatment (e.g. for tuberculosis, HIV or diabetes)? Are they appropriately supported, or stigmatized within health systems and community-based structures?
Social norms How do women and men within households and communities prioritize individuals’ access to medical technologies or commodities used within an intervention (e.g. are boys or girls more likely be prioritized for oral rehydration therapy)?
How do social norms and notions of masculinity and femininity influence men’s and women’s decisions to use the protective equipment required in an intervention?
Rules and decision-making To what extent does regulation stand in the way of making services used within the intervention more widely accessible for women or marginalized groups (e.g. medical abortion, family planning)?
What is the effectiveness of regulatory mechanisms to ensure that medical products for women or other marginalized groups are not misused (e.g. oxytocin to augment labour)?